Bio. Section 3

LIBERIA

President William V. S. Tubman, The Head of State, Chief Executive, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, National Standard Bearer of the Party, was born in November 1895 at Harper in Eastern Liberia to an old African-American family.

He was educated at Cape Palmsa Seminary and qualified as a lawyer. He was a recorder in the Monthly and Probate Court, a Collector of Internal Revenues, a Country Attorney, and a Senator for the True Whig Party. In 1928 he became a law preacher in the Methodist Church, thus representing Liberia at a Methodist Conference in Kansas City, United States. He was also the Deputy-President of the Supreme Court and finally he became President of the Republic of Liberia in 1944.

The moment he took office, he extended the vote, reformed the fiscal and legal systems, and traveled widely throughout the country to wield and unify the various elements of the population.

He had been elected and re-elected time and again. During his administration, facilities for education and the rise of the people's standard of living have gradually improved, women have been given the chance to vote and many of them play important roles in the government. Under his administration the country's economy is steadily rising.

President Tubman is a very intelligent and hard working person. He dominates Liberian internal and external politics.

All in all, under his leadership, from the tribal farmer to the businessman, a new spirit moves on in Liberia, a spirit of significant national awakening that can be seen in ever endeavor of life in the country.

LIBYA

His Majesty King ldris I of the United Kingdom of Libya was born on March 13, 1890. He is the grandson of the late Mohammed Ali Ben es-Senussi, who was the founder of a powerful Moslem fraternity known as "Senussiya".

In 1917, Britain, Italy and the Senussi chiefs recognized him as the Grand Senussi. In 1920, he was given the hereditary title of Ami with jurisdiction over Kufra, Jaghhub, Jalo, Aujila and Jedabia.

During the Italian occupation of his country, King ldris found refuge in Egypt, but struggled for the liberation of his country.

During World War II, he assisted the British 8th Army by raising a national battalion to fight against the Italians and the Germans.

By 1947, he returned to Cyrenaica and established himself in Benghazi and was recognized by Britain as the ruler of the area.

Three years after, the then National Assembly, comprising representatives from the three provinces, chose him as the first King of Libya.

When Britain and France relinquished their administrative authority, King ldris I proclaimed the independence of the United Kingdom of Libya.

MADAGASCAR (formerly Malagasy)

Mr. Philibert Tsiranana, President of the Malagasy Republic was born on October 18, 1912 at Anahidrano, in Majunga province. He often recalls how he used to till the soil on his grandfather's piece of land at Majunga, and looked after goats as a child.

He completed his early studies in his native town, and went to France for further studies. After that, he taught in the technical school at Tananarive until 1955.

President Tsiranana at one time was elected to the Provincial Assembly of his own province, to the Representative Assembly of Madagascar, and then to the French National Assembly.

Inspired by the ideas of Christian Socialism - a socialism that led him to achieve noble performances for his people, he founded the Madagascar's Social Democratic Party, and later on became its secretary-general

When he became Vice-President and then President of the Government Council of Madagascar, he fought diligently for the adoption of the Constitution of the 5th Republic in the referendum of 1958.

After he became head of state, and indeed throughout his entire public career, he made it clear that political independence means practically nothing, unless it is followed by rigorous and overall economic freedom.

His entire life has been dedicated to the task of making his countrymen happy and duty minded.

He is always active, full of life and vigor. He rises at dawn and goes to bed after mid-night. Many observers believe that under his careful but strict leadership, his countrymen are achieving tremendous progress in many respects.

He attaches great importance to socialism so much so that many of his people are now convinced that under this system, the hopes for greatness to Malagasy will not be distant. He often tours the country, speaks to the people, listens attentively to their problems, and in turn, reassures them that the day when their country will be one of the finest in Africa, is not far; that they must not sacrifice the luxury of political freedom to the degeneration of economic slavery; that they in turn should not ask what "Malagasy will do for them", but what "they will do for the young republic"; that they should not abuse and pay lip-service to their citizenship, but prove it by concrete results, such as hard work, intelligence, dedication and commitments of the mind, that can bring lasting rewards to all.

MALI

Mr. Modibo Keita, President I the Republic of Mali, is one of the most powerful and able leaders West Africa has ever produced. He presents a figure of immense astuteness, dignity, and respectability. He deeply saturated in French culture and knows Africa's problems inside out.

He was born in Bamako on May 4, 1915. He is a devoted Moslem, and is the descended of the famous Keita dynasty of the ancient African can Empire of Mali.

He was educated at William Ponty Ecole Normale in Dakar and taught for 10 years before becoming active in politics. In 1945, with the assistance of friends like Mamadaou Konate, he formed the Soudan Bloc, which later aligned itself with the French socialist parties.

The French government jailed him for a year on charges of his so-called "extreme policies", and "radical tendencies." In the years to come, he embarked upon a number of calculated risks, which in the end, worked out to his favor and popularity.

Before occupying his present office, he served his country and the Government of France in a variety of capacities and posts.

At one time, he was secretary-general of the Soudanese section of the RAD; member of the first Soudanese territorial assembly; a Deputy in the French Assembly, and later on, turned out to be its firs African vice-president; Secretary of State for French Overseas Territories; Secretary of State of the president of the council in the Gailard Government; and last but not least, he was mayor of the city Bamako.

Turning towards the concept of West African Federation, a meeting between Upper Volta, Soudan, Dahomey and Senegal was held in Bamako. In January 1959, he was elected President of the General Council of French West Africa, and worked energetically for a federation of West African states. When Dahomey and Upper Volta withdrew from the proposed federation, Senegal and the Soudan merged to form the Federation of Mali. Modibo Keita became Secretary-General of the new Federation. In April of that year, he became premier and advocated a unitary government, but Senegal preferred the federal system.

Personality clashes among other things, led to the failure of the Federation. Modibo Keita became President of Mali and followed a more radical policy drawing closer to Guinea and Ghana.

Besides signing a number of agreements with the heads of foreign governments, in 1961 he attended a Summit Conference at Casablanca, thus making the Republic of Mali, a member of the Casablanca group of African States.

Thanks to his competency, Mali's shaky economy has been made stable, and the country has been able to avoid its pitfalls and overcome its initial struggles.

MAURITANIA

Mauritania's first premier, Mr. Mokhtar 0uld Daddah was born in 1924. He studied in the school of interpreters in St. Louis, Senegal, and in the School of Oriental Languages in France. He is not only a French Senegalese trained lawyer, but also an Arabic Scholar.

The Mauritanian premier has displayed considerable talent - talent that he proved in a variety of posts before becoming Prime Minister of the Islamic republic.

At one time he was a lawyer in Dakar; a member of the Territorial Assembly of Mauritania; Vice-President of the Government Council Minister of Youth, Sports, Education, Information, and Intra-Territorial Affairs. He was also Secretary-General of the Provisional Executive Committee of the Mauritanian Regroupment Party. When Mr. Daddah was elected to the Mauritanian Assembly, he became the Deputy to the Constituent Assembly of the Republic.

The prime minister strongly emphasizes the development of an "educational system deeply impregnated" with the original culture of the country - an educational system, adapted to the needs of a modern state.

He is very much committed to the modernization of the young Republic. And to this day, he offers constructive and remunerative roles to all educated Mauritanians. He insists that people assigned with responsibilities, must set aside minor points of difference, and work in harmony towards the achievement of a common end.

MOROCCO

King Hassan II, Head of State of the Kingdom of Morocco, and the son of late King Mohammed V, was Loin on July 9th, 1927 at the city of Rabat. He accomplished most of his early Arabic and Western education under private tutors in Morocco. Later on, he obtained a degree in law at Bordeaux University.

He has always been assisting his father in both government, and in private affairs. In 1953 when King Mohammed V, the national symbol of resistance to French rule, was deported to Corsica and then to Madagascar (Malagasy), by the French authorities, he was closely associated to him.

In 1955 he returned with his father to the homeland, continued the long and arduous struggle for the liberation of Morocco, and assisted him in the negotiations in Paris, which resulted in Morocco's independence in 1956.

Among other things, he was Supreme Commander of the Moroccan Army, which under him was completely reorganized; Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense; and Chairman of National Commission for the Construction of the city of Agadir, which was destroyed by an earthquake of 1960.

In 1957, he was formally declared Crown Prince and heir apparent to the throne. In the absence of his father, he carried government responsibilities, and played increasing roles in the political life of Morocco, which, apparently, have earned him a name among his countrymen. 

As Crown Prince he was known as Mouly Hassan. When King Mohammed died, he became King Hassan II.  

Bio. Section 4