BIO. Section 5

SIERRA LEONE

Sir Milton Margai, the 65-yearold Prime Minister of Sierra Leone, was born at Gbangbatoke of a family of eighteen children of whom he is the eldest. He is a very deeply religious man, belonging to the Evangelical United Brethren Church, in whose schools he was educated. He qualified as a medical doctor in Britain in 1926.

His knowledge about every village and district in his country, which he acquired during his years of medical practice, gives him a wider understanding of his country's problems, unmatched by any politician in the country.

He turned the Sierra Leone Organization Society, founded to further agricultural development and cooperation, into a political party. He was the brain behind the first Chief's Conference in Rotifunk, which later led to the first political association culminating in the final milestone in the country's destiny.

Sir Milton was unanimously chosen as the first prime minister of Sierra Leone. This achievement assures him of a niche and perfect place in the history of his country.

The Prime Minister is a frail and quiet man, very simple and unostentatious. He is reserved but astute in politics, whose uncanny insight puts him on equal footing with contemporary politicians of West Africa.

Observers say he is warm and enjoyable in private conversations, but rather shy and self-conscious in public speaking. He is also frank and straightforward as leader of great probity.

Asked about the problems his country faces, he said, "We have many problems, but meet these, we have also a great deal of courage, purpose and determination. Our difficulties are not insuperable. We shall surmount them because we the unified will of our people is that they should be surmounted."

In it Prime Minister, Sierra Leone a statesman, a leader, and a father for whom April 27th 1961 marked the fulfillment of his cherished dreams, and the realization of all his lifelong ambition.

SOMALIA

Mr. Abdella Osman, President of the Republic of Somalia, was born in 1908 in the town of Beledwein.

He completed his formal education in Mogadishu and then served his country, which was then under Italian administration, in a variety of offices and responsibilities from 1929 to 1941.

Before assuming his present post, he was an active member of the Somali Youth League, until he turned out to be its leader and reputed president. He was also the president of the legislative assembly, and Somalia's representative at the Moslem conference in Karachi, and at the UN Territorial Council.

The President speaks and writes Italian, Arabic, and English. His cooperative actions and farsighted vision in leadership brought Somalia its independence in one of the most constructive acts of statesmanship.

President Abdella Osman is a quiet, intelligent and efficient man. In his effort to lift the standard of living of his people, he inclines towards moderation and prudence. Knowing that stability and gradual development are the sure means to success, he prefers a slow but sure national evolution to a radical upsetting revolution.

SUDAN

Marshal Farik lbrahim Abboud, President of the Supreme Council, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, and President of the Republic of the Sudan was born in 1900 at Mohamed-Gal near the Red Spa.

Educated in the Department of Engineering at Gordon Memorial College in Khartoum, and in the United Kingdom, he joined the Military Academy as a cadet, and was commissioned as 2nd Lieutenant in the Sudanese battalion of the Egyptian Army.

Before he assumed his present office, Marshall lbrahim Abboud was a military engineer, a staff officer in the Camel Corps, Commander of the Sudanese Service Corps, Principal Staff Officer of the Sudanese Defense Force, a Major-General and the first native born Commander of the Sudanese Armed Forces.

His Excellency President Abboud has received many decorations for the distinguished roles he played in World War II campaigns against Italy in Libya and Ethiopia. He has proved himself as a tough soldier, distinguished himself as an able leader, and proven himself as an energetic administrator. As a man of valor, courage, and discipline, he has earned not only a name, but also a respect and an admiration from the entire world.

As a far-sighted statesman, knowing that a new day will dawn for the Sudanese people, in the face of opposition, extremely hard times, and political intrigues, he still struggles for the realization of social reforms, a fair and just administration, and the progress of the Sudan at an accelerated speed.

Most of the plans has had on paper, are now fulfilled. He has also demonstrated his ability to create order, do away with corruption, organize the economy, and increase production. His former opponents are now his supporters. H. E. President Abboud is nothing but an exemplification of the Sudanese people in courage, character, and resourcefulness.

TANZANIA (formerly Tanganyika)

Dr. Julius Nyerere, President of the Republic of Tanganyika is one of the most able, modest, and democratic minded statesmen Africa has ever produced. He is man who is hailed by contemporary historians and politicians, as being a leader of superb qualities, wide vision, and intellect.

He was born in 1923 in Northern Tanganyika. He went to school at the age of 12. He attended Makerere College in Uganda, from 1943 to 1945, and obtained a diploma in Education. The next four years were then devoted to teaching in a Catholic Mission School in Tanganyika. Entering the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, in 1949, Dr. Nyerere graduated with a Masters degree in Economics and History.

When he came home to Tanganyika to teach, he found his people making restless efforts in order to achieve independence, but without a leader to spearhead their demands. He therefore joined The Tanganyika African National Union. Under the leadership of Dr. Nyerere and his party, Tanganyka has been able to achieve its independence smoothly and in an orderly manner. It has also been termed as an island of peace in the ocean of instability and agitation.

Dr. Nyerere has made it clear that he looks upon any immigrant, who has made his home in Tanganyika, as a Tanganyikan born African. On June 1960, he advocated an East African Federation at the Conference of Independent African States in Addis Ababa and announced that he was prepared to postpone Tanganyikan independence if this will further the independence of the other East African States.

When South Africa applied to remain a member of the Commonwealth after she became a republic, his intervention along with other leaders, led to South Africa's withdrawal from membership. Dr. Neyere was quoted as saying, "The principles of the Commonwealth will be betrayed. To vote South Africa in is to vote us out…"

Dr. Neyere is generally regarded as moderate politician, who is able to form long-term policies and decisions.

He is an avowed socialist, and a devoted Panafricanist, who is courageous and determined to end racism.

TUNISIA

If there is a true nationalist Tunisian leader, who fought till the last fiber of his being, to rid Tunisia of foreign exploitation and domination - it is president Habib Bourguiba.

Born in a small fishing village near Tunis in 1903, he went to a French Lycee and read Law in Paris. Returning to Tunis, he practiced law for some time, and then joined the Destour Political Party.

But since the aims of this party were too mild and moderate to suit his radical and nationalistic views, in 1934, he found the NeoDestour Party. It is true that able and educated people rallied around him. But in the majority of cases, it was due to his large efforts and abilities that his dearest and enlightened dream of liberating Tunisia from France could materialize.

The French arrested President Bourguiba and kept him in prison for twelve and half years. In 1942, when the Germans occupied Marseilles, they removed him from the fortress there, and handed him over to the Italians, who sent him to Tunisia.

Though the German motive behind this act was based on the idea of trying to win Tunisia to the German side, he did quite the opposite. All he was interested in was to win freedom and independence for his homeland.

In 1955, the French Government was obliged to come to terms with Mr. Bourguiba. In the same year, Tunisia was granted internal autonomy by the French. When Tunisia was declared an independent state in 1956, he was made prime minister. When the monarchy was abolished in 1957, he was elected President of the Republic of Tunisia, and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.

TOGO

Togo was granted internal autonomy by the French authorities on October, 1956. In the elections of 1958 that were supervised by the United Nations, the CUT party of the late President Sylvanus Olympio won 32 of the 36 seats in the Togolese National Assembly. Mr Grunizky then became leader of the opposition.

President Sylvanus Olympio

The late Sylvanus Olympio was leading his country until he was assassinated on January 1963. Mr. Nicolas Grunitzky, who was living in Dahomey aloof from Togolese politics, returned to Togo upon the death of the late President and became provisional President, promising the people that he would only assume control of the government until a general election takes place.

UGANDA

Prime Minister Obote, head of the government of the sovereign state of Uganda, is an astute politician, who has moved to his present post with vigorous determination in less than five years. He is also considered by many observers, as one of the most skilled parliamentary debaters and hair-lifting orators in East Africa.

Mr. Obote was born in 1925 in Lango district of Uganda. The early days of his childhood were devoted to studies in Lira Protestant Mission School, and the Gulu Junior Secondary School at Lango. He Graduated from Bugoga College and then from the University College of Makerere. He then went to neighboring Kenya, where he worked with the Mowleem engineering firm, the Standard Vacuum Oil Company, railway services, and in a sugar factory.

Mr. Obote was also a founder member of the Kenya African National Union, which was, and to this day remains, under the leadership of the Honorable Jomo Kenyatta. Later on, he became a very close friend of Mr. Mboya.

After 1957, he embarked on a political career in Uganda. Going to Lango, he took over the branch leadership of the Uganda National Congress (UNC), and in 1958, he was elected to the legislative Council. He revitalized the truncated UNC central organization, and became the African representative in the Legislative Council. From there, he moved on to the Presidency of the Uganda People's Congress.

As a member of the Wild Committee, he had much to do with framing the constitutional proposals, which gave Uganda an almost wholly elected legislature in 1961.

The manner in which he handled the difficult transition period since he took office, has won him the respect of his people.

Though deeply concerned with the problem of national unity, he sees it as essential prerequisite for the development of the national economy.

Mr. Obote contends that every member of the community has to fight and win the massive revolt against poverty, illiteracy, and diseases.

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